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Everhard Ditters

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Issues in Arabic Computational Linguistics

For example, generalizations in the form of transformations in a transformational generative framework TG are too powerful a tool for an overall linguistic description;, when a simple machine like a computer failed to decide in a finite time whether or not a certain TG structure was described in the formal implementation of that linguistic description, I opted for a different formalism AGFL 43 to implement a description Ditters , , in terms of a combination of IC and DG.

The objective is to test such a hypothetical description of, in our case, lMSA syntax structure on real data, for example, an Arabic text corpus. It is the machine-readable text data that determine whether a match should occur or not. Once tested, corrected, and refined, the hypothesis has become a theory, certainly for the language structure represented in the test bed in the form of a new hypothesis to be tested on other Arabic text corpora.

Briefly, AGFL is an interwoven two-level context-free grammar formalism 44 with almost context-sensitive properties. On the Chomskian hierarchy of grammars Levelt scale, context-free grammars are, for the description and automated testing of natural language descriptions, really rather nonproblematic. As a matter of fact, Chomsky qualified a context-free grammar as an inadequate descriptive tool for natural languages. However, he never showed, as far as I know, any interest in a combination of two or even more context-free grammars with an almost context-sensitive descriptive power , 46 enough to describe, for example, most of Standard Arabic, including at least parts of its semantic richness.

Furthermore, he never tested, as far as I know, his linguistic hypotheses and theoretical models practically by computational means. A rule-based context-free grammar rewrites one single nonterminal at the left-hand side into one or more nonterminals or lexical entries on the right-hand side.

AGFL, successor of EAG Appendix 1 , is a formalism for the description of programming languages or natural languages in which large context-free grammars can be described in a compact way. Along with attribute grammars 47 and DCGs, AGFLs belong to the family of two-level grammars, the first, context-free level, which accounts for the description of sequential word order of surface natural language elements, is augmented with set-valued features for expressing agreement between constituents and between elements of a constituent as well as linguistic properties including semantic features.

Notational AGFL conventions include the rewrite symbol : , the marking of alternatives ; , the separation of sequences , , the end of a rule. Therefore, the choice of names and terminal values for the elements of the first and second level of description of, for example, MSA, may be as linguistically recognizable as one prefers. We use four types of rules within the AGFL formalism: the so-called hyperrules; metarules; predicate rules; and lexical rules: Variation in the sequence of those elements is dealt with by the formalism. However, as is well-known, natural languages go further than the addition of the meaning of individual elements for capturing the real meaning of the linguistic data concerned.

In Figure 9. It may be clear that the meaning of an utterance does not equal the sum of the meaning of its constituents. Jaszczolt , In a joint contribution to the Nemlar conference Ditters and Koster , 56 we explored the potentiality of the existing approach to MSA syntax for other, socially equally relevant, spinoffs of my description of Arabic for corpus-linguistic analysis purposes. I prefer to finish testing the current implementation hypothesis about MSA syntax on Arabic text data. Second, I should like to refine the verified theory by means of a formal description of MSA syntax for generative purposes.

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Dependency grammar worded implementation could be extracted from such research. Appendix-1 Frequently used Abbreviations and their Meaning. Appendix-2 Relevant Notions and their Global mostly linguistically oriented Meaning. Base Phrase BP chunking is the process of creating non-recursive base phrases such as adjectival-, determiner-, noun-, particle-, prepositional-, verb phrases, and the like. Concatenation of a function word with an entry of another word category for instance definite article in Arabic.

The Principle of Compositionality is, in mathematics, semantics, and philosophy of language, the principle that the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings of its constituent expressions and the rules used to combine them Wikipedia. The means by which instructions and data are transmitted to computers.

In a root- and pattern language system two consecutive constituents of the language basic inventory. In this context: only static structures are defined or described. Separation of a function word with an entry of another word category for instance definite article in Arabic. In this context: from the beginning the machine is explicitly being told: how to start, where to find what it needs for the execution of the program, what to do with it, what the next step will be, and when its activity will come to an end.

In this context: there is a beginning, a series of steps to be taken, leading to an end. A man-machine medium, accentuating the process of a beginning, and the execution of a finite set of steps to be taken.

Here, the possible content category of an obligatory or optional function within a formalized language description. Here, a symbolic as well as an automated element in an implemented IT language application. A, usually rule-based, linguistic description of, in our case, the structure of a natural language for automated processing.

Grammar and syntax

A set of words, i. A, usually rule-based, medium between man and machine for computer processing purposes. Meaning label of a verb with information about the numer and function of its arguments. A man-machine medium, accentuating functional elements in the process of a beginning, the execution of a set of steps to be taken inevitably leading to an end. Statistical estimation of the distribution of natural language as accurate as possible. Grouping together the different inflected forms of a word so they can be analysed as a single item.

In a root- and pattern language system two non-consecutive constituents of the language basic inventory. In this context: static as well as dynamic structures are defined or described. In this context: only the machine-readable input data condition a match with preprogrammed information. Mapping variant orthographic forms to a single canonical form.

The separation and segmentation of sentences into their sub-constituents, such as noun, verb, and prepositional. Assigning a contextually appropriate morpho-syntactic annotation to every word in a sentence. An artificial language designed to express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer. Match between something with something already known or acknowledgement of something as valid. A man-machine medium, accentuating relational elements, for instance dependencies, in the process of a beginning, the execution of a set of steps to be taken inevitably leading to an end.

Here, an optional or obligatory function or position within a linguistic unit. In this context: a description of structures with a beginning a series of steps to be taken, and end conditioned by the end of the input to be structurally matched. Splitting off of clitics and other non-core morphemes resulting in the representation of the pure stem stemming is the process for reducing inflected or sometimes derived words to their stem, base or root form.

Finer grained restrictions on the arguments a head can take.


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A keyword or term associated with or assigned to a piece of information. Assignment of a part-of-speech or another sub- category marker to each word in a corpus of natural language text. A list of keywords or terms to be associated with or assigned to a piece of information. Here, a final value of the first lexicon or the second level meta rules of language description. The task of assigning predefined categories to free-text documents.

A layer or ranking or classification-group in any real or imagined hierarchy. Breaking a stream of text up into words, phrases, symbols, or other meaningful elements called tokens Tokenization is the process of segmenting clitics from stems. A transducer is a device that converts one type of, originally, energy to another. Abu Ghazaleh, Ilham N.